英语:一举两得的英语单词对比记忆法

下面这些单词词对形态相似,含义相反,放在一起对比记忆,一方面记忆效果极佳,另一方面会无形中记住很多词根,绝对是一举两得的英语单词记忆法(量有点大,一些词难度也不小):

accident—incident 事故事件
The accident was caused by human error.
这宗事故是人为过失造成的
The spy scandal caused a diplomatic incident.
间谍丑闻引起了一起外交事件
adept—inept
擅长的无能的
She was adept at Internet use.
她特别擅长运用网络
I’ve never heard anyone so inept at making speeches.
我从未听说过有这样不会讲话的人
ameliorate—deteriorate 
Many social workers have attempted to ameliorate the conditions of people living in the slums.
很多社会工作者尝试改善住在贫民窟里的人的状况
My grandfather’s health began to deteriorate.
我祖父的健康开始恶化
apogee—perigee 最远点最近点
When the moon in its orbit is furthest away from the earth, it is at its apogee.
当月球位于离地球最远的轨道上时,它就是位于最远点
The rocket was launched as the moon approached its perigee.
火箭是在月球接近它的最近点时发射的
arctic—antarctic 北极南极
Like Antarctica, the Arctic is a land of ice snow.
如同南极,北极是一个冰雪覆盖的大陆
They started on an Antarctic expedition.
他们出发去南极探险
bear—beget 女人生育男人生育
His wife has born him a son.
他老婆给他生了一个儿子
The natural men have only two primal passions—to get and to beget.
自然状态的男人只有两种原始激情:获取与生育
brave—bravado 真勇敢假勇敢
Every brave man is a man of his word.
勇敢的人是信守承诺的人
The bravado of the criminal disappeared when the victims fought back.
当受害人奋起反抗时,罪犯的虚张声势顿时消失
clement—inclement 仁慈的不仁慈的
Judge Smith was clement toward first offenders.
史密斯法官对初犯比较仁慈
In inclement weather, I like to curl up on the sofa with a good book and listen to the storm blowing outside.
天气恶劣时,我喜欢捧着一本好书,蜷缩在沙发上,听着外面的狂风暴雨
concave—convex 凹面的凸面的
The back-packers found shelter from the storm against the concave wall of the cliff.
驴友们靠着崖壁上的凹处躲避风暴
She polished the convex lens of her telescope.
她擦拭着望远镜的凸透镜

 

construct—destruct 建造破坏
Can we construct a tunnel connecting the Mainland and Taiwan?
我们能否修建一条连接大陆和台湾的隧道?
We should stop the actions that would eventually destruct our planet.
我们应该阻止那些将最终毁坏我们地球家园的行动


covert—overt 隐蔽的公开的
Investigations of the Central Intelligence Agency reveal that such covert operations can get out of control.
对中央情报局的调查显示,这些暗箱操作会失控
According to the United States Constitution, a person must commit an overt act before he may be tried for treason.
根据美国宪法,一个人必须从事公开活动才能被定叛国罪
creator—creature 创造者创造物
Human dignity and rights are the consecrated and inviolable gift of creator to mankind.
人的尊严与权利是造物主赋予的神圣不可侵犯的礼物
The crocodile is a strange-looking creature.
鳄鱼是一种模样古怪的动物

 

defend—offend 防卫进攻
He defended his claim successfully.
他成功地为自己的主张进行了辩护
Her behavior was likely to offend some people.
她的行为可能会冒犯一些人
deranged—arranged 错乱的有序的
He had to be institutionalized because he was deranged.
他应该关进疯人院,因为他精神错乱了
The restaurant is well arranged and the dish is delectable.
这家餐厅布置优雅,菜肴可口
detached—attached 超然的依附的
A psychoanalyst must maintain a detached point of view and stay uninvolved with her patients’ personal lives.
精神分析专家必须保持一种超然的观点,并且不卷入病人的私人生活
The Overseas Hospital is attached to Jinan University.
华侨医院附属于暨南大学

 

detrimental—instrumental 有害的有益的
The candidate’s acceptance of financial contributions from a racist proved detrimental to his campaign.
那位候选人接受一个种族主义者的捐款证明对他的选举有害
The fire was instrumental in baking the mud into porcelain.
这场火灾起了作用,把泥焙成了瓷
diffidence—confidence 不自信自信
You must overcome your diffidence if you intend to become a salesperson.
你要想做业务就必须克服羞怯
I have every confidence in my promotion.
我对升职充满信心
dissuade—persuade 劝止说服
Since Tom could not dissuade Huck from running away from home, he decided to run away with his friend.
由于汤姆不能劝阻哈克离家出走,他决定与朋友同去
How can we persuade them into accepting our views?
我们怎么能说服他们接受我们的看法呢?

 

diurnal—nocturnal 白天的晚上的
A farmer cannot neglect his diurnal tasks at any time; cows, for example, must be milked regularly.
一个农夫任何时候都不能忽略他白天的活,比如牛,必须定时挤奶
【构词】di (day) + urn (补音) + al (adj.)
The owl is a nocturnal bird.
猫头鹰是夜间活动的鸟
Mr. Jones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chicken coops.
琼斯弄了只看家狗,以防止对他鸡窝进行的夜间偷袭
【构词】noct (night) + urn (补音) + al (adj.)
father-mother
husband-wife
nephew-niece
uncle-aunt
employer-employee
trainer-trainee
master-slave
host-guest

 

don—doff 穿上脱下
‍When he had to don his superman outfit, he changed clothes in a convenient phone booth.
当他要换上超人装束时,他就就近找个电话亭换衣服
注意【构词】d + on
‍A gentleman used to doff his hat to a lady.
绅士通常向女士脱帽致敬
注意【构词】d + off

 

encourage—discourage 鼓励阻碍
‍Don’t encourage her laziness by doing things for her.
不要什么事都替她干,把她惯懒了
‍We discourage smoking in this school.
我们在这所学校劝阻吸烟

 

energize—enervate 使精力充沛使筋疲力尽
‍Rather than exhausting Maggie, dancing energized her.
跳舞不仅不会使美琪筋疲力尽,反而使她精力旺盛
‍She was slow to recover from her illness; even a short walk to the window enervated her.
她病情恢复缓慢;就连走到窗口这一小段路都会让她筋疲力尽

 

extant—extinct 现存的灭绝的
‍Although the book is out of print, some copies are still extant.
虽然这本书已经停印了,有几本还存在
‍Animals to which humans are indifferent often go extinct.
人类漠视的动物常常走向灭绝

 

extrinsic—intrinsic 外在的内在的
‍A critically acclaimed extrinsic feature of the Chrysler Building is its ornate spire.
克莱斯勒大厦广受好评的特点是它华丽的尖塔
‍The judge would not admit the testimony, ruling that it was extrinsic to the matter at hand.
法官不认可这个证据,裁定它与本案无关
‍Although my grandmother’s china has little intrinsic value, I shall always cherish it.
虽然我祖母的瓷器没多少内在价值,我还是会永远珍惜

 

fauna—flora 动物群植物群
‍The scientist could visualize the fauna of the period by examining the skeletal remains and the fossils.
科学家们可以通过检验化石,还原那个时期动物的形象
Because she was a botanist, she spent most of her time studying the flora of the desert. ‍
由于她是植物学家,她把大部分时间用来研究沙漠上的植物群

 

fodder—food 饲料食物(食物包含饲料)
‍One of Nancy’s chores at the ranch was to put fresh supplies of fodder in the horses’ stalls.
南希在牧场的杂务之一是给马棚送新鲜饲料
‍Of course, I love junk food, too.
我当然也喜欢垃圾食品

 

friend—foe 朋友敌人
‍Are you friend or foe?
你是敌是友?

 

gnome—giant 侏儒巨人
‍In medieval mythology, gnomes were the special guardians and inhabitants of subterranean mines.
在中世纪神话中,侏儒是特殊的卫士和地下矿区的居民
‍There is a giant asleep within every man. When the giant awakens, miracles happen.
每个人心中都有一个沉睡的巨人。当巨人醒来时,奇迹就会发生

 

heterogeneous—homogeneous 异类的同类的
‍This year’s entering class is a remarkably heterogeneous body: it includes students from 40 different states and 26 foreign countries, some the children of billionaires, others the offspring of welfare families.
今年入学的班差异特别大:学生来自40个不同的州和26个不同的国家,一些是富二代,一些是贫困户子弟
‍Because the student body at Elite Prep was so homogeneous, Sara and James decided to send their daughter to a school that offered greater cultural diversity.
由于未来精英学校的学生背景太相同了,萨拉和詹姆斯决定把女儿送到文化更加多样化的学校去

 

hostility—hospitality敌视友善
‍A child who has been the sole object of his parents’ affection often feels hostility toward a new baby in the family.
一个成为父母唯一关爱对象的孩子通常会对家庭中的新生婴儿产生敌意
‍Thank you for your hospitality.
感谢你们的盛情款待

 

immigrate—emigrate 移民(入)移民(出)
‍Many Jews immigrated into the United States.
许多犹太人移居美国
‍I intend to emigrate to Canada.
我打算移民加拿大

 

implicit—explicit 暗示的明确的
‍The doctor gave an implicit answer.
医生给了一个含蓄的回答
‍You must give me an explicit answer.
你必须给我一个明确的答复

 

implode—explode 内爆爆炸
‍If you break a vacuum tube, the glass tube implodes.
如果你打破一个真空管,管子就会向内破裂
‍At times it has seemed that each bus might explode, that every restaurant, every cafe was a potential death trap.
有时,似乎每辆巴士都会爆炸,每个餐馆,每个咖啡厅都是个潜在的死亡陷阱

 

import—export 进口出口
‍We import thousands of cars from Japan.
我们从日本进口数千辆汽车
‍China exports bicycles to many foreign countries.
中国向许多国家出口自行车

 

amina-aminus 男性的女性倾向女性的男性倾向
alumna-alumnus
女校友男校友

 

incriminate—recriminate 指控反控
‍It’s natural to recriminate against someone who has tried to put the blame on you.
对企图加罪于你的人进行反责,这是很正常的
‍The witness’s testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public officials as well.
证人针对敲诈者的证言牵涉到一些高官

 

island—islet 岛屿小岛
‍The British are an island race.
英国人是以岛为家的民族
‍You can find whole regiments of birds on the islet.
在那个小岛上你可以看到成群的鸟

 

longitude—latitude 经度纬度
‍To find the exact location of a place at the globe, find its latitude and longitude.
要找到一个地方的准确位置,就找出它的纬度和经度
‍You have permitted your son too much latitude.
你给你儿子的自由太多了

 

major—minor 主要的次要的
‍One major problem is tooth decay.
一个主要的问题是蛀牙
‍She acted as a minor role in the play.
她在剧中扮演次要角色

 

nephew—‍niece 侄儿侄女
‍He is my nephew, not my son.
他是我的侄子,不是我的儿子
‍Your niece is engaged, isn’t she?
你的侄女订过婚了,不是吗?

 

nurture—nature 后天先天(教养天性)
‍It was a striking case of how nurture affects nature.
这是一个后天影响先天的典型例子
‍The Head Start program attempts to nurture prekindergarten children so that they will do well when they enter public school.
人之初计划旨在培养入托前幼儿,使他们进入公立学校时能顺利成长

 

optimistic‍—pessimistic 乐观的悲观的
‍As he grew older, his songs became more humorous and optimistic.
随着他的成长,他的歌变得更加幽默和乐观
‍People tend to become pessimistic and lose confidence in adverse circumstances.
在逆境之中,人容易变得悲观,失去信心

 

outlet—inlet 出口处入口处
‍Music was an outlet for his emotions.
音乐是他发泄情感的一个途径
‍The air inlet is blocked.
空气入口被堵住了

 

pet—pest 宠物害虫
‍Rabbit is my favourite pet.
兔子是我最喜爱的宠物
‍Pest control is one of the major areas of concern in intensive agriculture.
害虫防治是集约型农业重点关注的方面之一

 

predator—prey 捕食者被捕食者
‍A wide variety of predators—cats, owls, hawks, weasels, foxes—catch mice for dinner. ‍
很多掠食动物猫,猫头鹰,老鹰,鼬鼠,狐狸都捕食老鼠
‍To surprise their prey, crocodiles must strike with lightning speed.
为了突袭猎物,鳄鱼必须以闪电般的速度出击

 

progenitor—progeny 祖先后裔
‍The Roth family, whose progenitors emigrated from Germany, settled in Peru, Illinois.
祖先从德国移民过来的罗斯家族,在伊利诺州的秘鲁镇定居下来
‍He was proud of his progeny but regarded George as the most promising of all his children.
他为晚辈们感到自豪,但最看好乔治

 

occur to sb=突然想到
‍Something interesting just occurred to me.
我突然想到了一件趣事
‍It never occurs to me to insure the house.
我从来也没想过去给房子投保

 

promote—demote 提拔降级
‍He worked hard and was soon promoted.
他工作努力,很快就获得提升
‍The boss demoted the careless waiter to busboy.
老板把那个粗心大意的服务员降为勤杂工

 

protect—detect 保护发觉
说明:tect的意思,pro=前面,把盾放在前面=保护,de=去掉,去掉盾,可看见被掩盖的东西,所以,detect=发觉。Detective=侦探。
‍How can you protect vision?
怎样可以保护视力?
‍I detected a note of pity in her voice.
我觉察她话音里带着同情
protégé—protector 被保护者保护者
‍Born with an independent spirit, Cyrano refused to be a protege of the cardinal.
大鼻子情圣西哈诺生来就具有独立精神,拒绝成为红衣主教的保护对象
‍I will stand before you as your protector.
我将站在你前面做你的保护者

 

paternal—‍maternal 父亲的—‍母亲的
‍They are my paternal grandparents.
他们是我的爷爷奶奶
‍He is my maternal uncle.
他是我舅舅
patron‍—matron 赞助人、保护人—‍女主管(护士长、女舍监等)
‍He was lucky to have found a millionaire patron .
他有幸找到了一个百万富翁赞助人
‍You can trust the matron of this hospital to keep her nurses up to the mark.
你可以信得过这家医院的护士长,她能保证手下的护士工作尽职尽责

 

reprove—approve 责骂赞扬
‍Though Aunt Bea at times would reprove Opie for inattention in church, she believed he was at heart a God-fearing lad.
虽然比依姨妈有时骂奥培做礼拜不专心,但她相信他内心还是个敬神的孩子。
‍Don’t expect him to approve of your plan straight away.
别指望他马上会接受你的计划

 

rest—roost 人休息鸟栖息
‍All you need is a good rest.
你所需要的是好好休息一下
‍The common kestrel roosts and hunts alone, but the lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks.
一般的红隼独自栖息和狩猎,但小部分红隼群栖群猎
注:隼(读音损),一种鸟

 

rude—crude 粗鲁的(人)粗糙的(物)
‍It is rude to spit in public.
在公共场合吐痰是粗鲁的
‍At first, these innovations looked hopelessly crude.
刚开始,这些发明显得十分粗糙

 

smile—smirk 真笑假笑
‍Luck smiled on me last night.
昨天晚上,我的好运来了
‍Come on. Don’t smirk at me like that.
拜托!别那样对我假笑

 

sojourn—adjourn 逗留换地方,休会
‍After his sojourn in Florida, he began to long for the colder climate of his native New England home.
他在佛罗里达逗留一段时间后,开始渴望新英格兰老家的寒冷天气
‍Let’s adjourn to the hall.
让我们移到大厅吧
‍The meeting was adjourned for a week.
会议休会一周

 

sophisticated‍—sophomoric 成熟的—‍幼稚的
‍When Sophy makes wisecracks, she thinks she sounds sophisticated, but instead she sounds sophomoric.
当苏菲讲俏皮话时,她自以为成熟,但结果她听上去非常浅薄

 

step—stride 大步
‍If this mission succeeds, it will be a great stride for Chinese space technology.
如果这个任务成功,那将是中国空间技术的一大进步
‍Research should always be your first step.
调查始终应该是你的第一步

 

trainer—‍trainee 培训师—‍培训生
‍Please arrange for a personal trainer.
一定给我安排个私人教练
‍I believe I qualify as a management trainee in your company.
自信符合你公司见习管理人员的要求

 

trash—treasure 垃圾财宝
‍Could you please take out the trash?
请问你能把垃圾拿出去吗?
‍Knowledge is a treasure, but practice is the key to it.
知识是一宝库,而实践是开启宝库大门的钥匙

 

victim—victor 牺牲者胜利者
‍China is not only a consumer of resources but also a major victim of a polluted environment.
中国不仅仅是一个资源的消耗者,更是一个环境污染的受害者
‍One may overcome a thousand men in battle, but he who conquers himself is the greatest victor.
一个人也许能敌千军,但是惟有战胜自己才是真英雄。(尼赫鲁)
说明:vict=harmvictim=被伤害者,Victor=伤人者

 

wane—wax 变小增大
‍When lit, does a candle wane?
点着后,蜡烛会变小吗?
‍With proper handling, her fortunes waxed and she became rich.
由于经营得法,她的财富大增,成了富婆

 

witch—wizard 巫婆神汉
‍The queen is beautiful but the witch is ugly. 皇后是美丽的,但是女巫是丑陋的
‍Can the wizard enchant Ford instead?
魔术师是否能施法于福特?

 

yuck—yum 讨厌好极了
‍Yuck! That fish smells disgusting.
讨厌,那鱼闻起来好恶心
‍Yum! This ice cream is delicious.
太棒了!这个冰激淋的味道真是好极了!

 

benevolent‍—malevolent 仁心的‍—恶意的
‍The old woman had a benevolent feeling towards all cats.
那个老太太对所有的猫都怀有仁慈之心
‍Unfortunately there are some malevolent people out there and it is best not to take undue risks.
遗憾的是,外面总有一些黑心人,因此,最好不要过度冒险

 

cavity‍—cavern 小洞—‍大洞
‍Yes, you have a cavity in your tooth.
你牙齿上有个蛀牙洞
‍We entered a dark cavern redolent with manly scents —gun oil and cigar smoke and boot polish.
我们进入一个昏暗的洞穴,里面充满了男人的气味枪油、雪茄烟味和擦靴子油味。

 

concord‍—discord 和谐‍—不和谐
‍The sword creates discord, while forgiveness brings concord.
刀剑带来了不安定,而宽容带来和谐

 

converge‍—diverge 汇合—‍分岔
‍The path diverges just after the house.
那条道路正好在房子后面分叉
‍The interest of all the students converged upon the celebration.
全体学生的兴趣都集中于庆祝会

 

explicit—‍implicit 明确的—‍含蓄的
‍You must give me an explicit answer.
你必须给我一个明确的答复
‍He couldn’t miss the implicit warning in her offer.
他不会忽略她提议中含蓄警告

 

fusion‍—fission 聚变‍—裂变
‍Fission and fusion, the sources of large-scale nuclear energy , deserve more than passing notice in a modern survey of physics.
裂变和聚变,大规模原子核能之源,在物理学的现代概观中值得特别注意,不能只是顺便注意。
‍This series of symphony is a fusion of several different styles of music.
这一组交响乐曲是揉合几种不同风格的乐曲而成的

 

introvert—‍extrovert 内向—‍外向
‍Are you an introvert or an extrovert?
你是内向型还是外向型的人?

 

malediction‍—benediction 诅咒—‍祝福
‍With her dying breath, Queen Dido pronounced a malediction on Aeneas and all his descendants.
迪多女王用最后一口气对阿因尼亚斯和他的子孙后代发出了诅咒
‍No cakes, no candles, no gifts. If a friend says the benediction to me, I will be happy!
没有蛋糕,没有蜡烛,没有礼物,如有个朋友说句祝福的话,我就会快乐!

 

master—‍minion 主人—‍仆人
‍Be your own master.
做你自己的主人
‍No, my minion, you are my secret weapon. I shall reveal you only when the time is right.
不,我的仆人,你是我的秘密武器。我只会在时机适宜时展现你

 

oriental—‍occidental 东方的—‍西方的
‍Oriental religions seem to be attracting thousands of westerners.
东方的宗教似乎吸引了成千上万的西方人
‍This paper is a part of the research on Sino-occidental religious thoughts.
本文是中西宗教思想比较研究的一部分
reimburse‍—disburse 报销‍—支付
‍The company will reimburse your expenses.
公司会报销你的费用
‍We disburse payments to members on a monthly basis.
我们按月向成员支付薪酬

 

starvation—satiety 挨饿—‍过饱
‍They live in continual fear of starvation.
他们生活在不断的饥饿恐惧中
‍Tom was filled to satiety by the big dinner.
汤姆在大宴上吃得不能再吃了

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